The Baaka  - Darling River

Darling River Indigenous History & Culture

First Nation History of the Darling Basin

The Darling River, known as Baaka in the local Indigenous language, has a remarkable history of over 45,000 human habitation. It flows over 1,400 kilometres through the arid Outback of New South Wales, Australia. Characterised by rich cultural diversity, this vast region compasses several distinct Indigenous groups and tribes.

Indigenous Groups and Tribes

The Darling River region is home to a tapestry of Indigenous groups and tribes, each with unique languages, cultures, and territories. Among the prominent groups in this area are the Barkindji (Pāṇaruu), Ngiyampaa (Yiampa), Mutthi Mutthi (Muthimuthi), and others. These Indigenous communities have maintained a harmonious relationship with the river, adapting to its challenges and utilising its resources for sustenance and spiritual significance.

Barkindji (Pāṇaruu)

The Barkindji people are the traditional custodians of the Lower Darling region. Their connection to the river shapes their culture and daily lives. The river provided sustenance through fish, waterfowl, and edible plants. Barkindji people have a profound spiritual connection to the river, woven into their Dreaming stories and songlines.

Ngiyampaa (Yiampa)

The Ngiyampaa people are renowned for their cultural heritage and intimate relationship with the Darling River. They, too, have deep connections to the river, and their language holds valuable knowledge about the region's ecology and resources. Ngiyampaa Dreaming stories reflect the creation and significance of the river in their culture.

Mutthi Mutthi (Muthimuthi)

The Mutthi Mutthi people inhabit the upper reaches of the Darling River. They have a rich cultural heritage that includes the traditional river use for fishing and trade. Their Dreaming stories explain the creation of the river and its importance as a cultural and ecological resource.

Anthropological Significance

The Darling River region holds immense anthropological importance, offering unique insights into Indigenous communities' diverse lifestyles, customs, and traditions over millennia. Archaeological sites along the riverbanks, such as middens, scarred trees, and rock art, provide windows into its ancient inhabitants' daily lives and cultural practices.

Connection to Country

The land and the river are inseparable for the Indigenous people along the Darling River. First Nations embedded connection to their Country through their Dreaming stories, songlines, and spiritual beliefs. These stories narrate the creation of the river and its significance in the cosmology of the local Indigenous cultures.

Dreaming Stories

The Dreaming stories of the Darling River recount the journeys of ancestral beings who shaped the landscape and established the cultural and social practices of the local Indigenous communities. These stories may vary among different groups, but they commonly emphasise themes of creation, connection, and custodianship of the land and the river.

Impact of Colonisation

The arrival of European colonisers in the 18th century brought profound and often devastating changes to the Indigenous people of the Darling River. Dispossession, disease, and violence disrupted their traditional way of life, leading to significant social and cultural upheaval.

Dispossession and Displacement

Colonisation resulted in the dispossession of Indigenous lands along the Darling River. Indigenous communities were forcibly removed from their ancestral territories, severing their profound connection to the Country and disrupting their cultural practices.

Cultural Resilience

Many Indigenous communities along the Darling River have displayed remarkable resilience despite colonisation challenges. They have strived to preserve their cultures and traditions, passing down knowledge of the river's significance to younger generations through oral histories and cultural practices.

Contemporary Indigenous Communities

Today, Indigenous communities along the Darling River continue to thrive and assert their cultural identity. They actively engage in various cultural and environmental initiatives to protect the river and revitalise their languages and traditions.

Environmental Stewardship

Contemporary Indigenous communities are dedicated to managing and preserving the Darling River's delicate ecosystem. They collaborate with government agencies and environmental organisations to address water management challenges, reduce pollution, and protect the river's health.

Cultural Revival and Heritage Preservation

Efforts to revive Indigenous languages, cultural practices, and art are thriving, ensuring the preservation of the traditions of the Darling River's original inhabitants for future generations. Cultural centres, language programs, and art initiatives are helping to safeguard and promote Indigenous heritage.


The Darling River stands as a living testament to the enduring history and cultural significance of the Indigenous people in the region. Their stories, traditions, and profound connection to the land continue to shape this unique part of Australia. These Indigenous communities remain steadfast in their commitment to preserving their heritage and protecting the river that has sustained them for over 40,000 years.